Almond is a fruit crop classified under two types, Amygdalus communis (sweet almonds) and Amygdalus amara (bitter almonds). Under this broad classification, in Afghanistan the almond varieties grown are under two major classes: soft-shell almonds, known locally as badam-e kaghaz (literally, “paper almond”), which can be easily broken by hand; and hard/medium-shell almonds with the local name of badam-e-sangi (literally, “stone almond”). These have many sub-types and multiple varieties, such as Sattarbai, which is of the soft-shell class.

Almond production in Afghanistan is ranked by FAO as tenth in the list of almond-producing countries of the world, though its domestic production is limited to 2% of the world production. Its production has shown a rising trend in the recent years. Within the country, the southwestern and northern regions have the maximum area under cultivation with Kandahar and Samangan province, accounting for much of its production, followed by the provinces of Uruzgan, Kunduz, Balkh, and Saripul As of 2012, the cultivated area of almonds was 13,490 ha with a yield rate of 45,960 hectagrams (one hectagram = 100 grams) per ha, recording a total yield of 62,000 tonnes, with conducive climatic conditions for growing variety of almond landraces of hard shell and soft shell varieties. The preferred markets for the export of Afghan almonds are India and Pakistan, with the former preferred because of better profitability.[Ref][Retrieved on 6/17/2017]

As a part of ANHDO activities, two groups of almond have been established with total number of 200 almond producers and local trader, in Samangan and Kunduz provinces.

Afghanistan National Collection:

The Afghan National Collection has the purpose to maintain and evaluate the fruit varieties and rootstocks, consisting of registered Afghan and Imported varieties, and release mother plants for the private nursery industry. It has to be seen as a living body, where not suitable plants are removed and new representative accessions enter, following new findings, market trend and climate adaptation.

Perennial Horticulture Development Project (PHDP) had a germplasm registration survey accross Afghanistan in 2006 – 2008, based on the principle that the main and high market value genotypes, and that outstanding genotypes should be collected, resulted in the field registration and labelling of nearly950in-situ accessions.
Similarly, PHDP has registered and assigned clone numbers to fruit and nut varieties imported to Afghanistan in the last years. The registration of imported clones will eventually facilitate their inclusion in the National Collection and certification system. PHDP have registered a total of250different varieties, imported to Afghanistan.

Here is the list of almond varieties available in National Collection of Mazar and Kunduz PHDCs (Perennial Horticulture Development Center) in the year of 2015.




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